I'A BLACK NOLA/FAUBOURG TREMÉ CHRONOLOGY
© 2019 by James B. Borders IV and Brenda Marie Osbey
1718 New Orleans established by Jean-Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville.
Earliest Black presence recorded includes Jorgé and Marie, enslaved to Bienville, as well as
the earliest recorded free man, Jean- Baptiste César, a laborer.
1719 First major shipment of African captives arrives aboard the vessel l’Aurore (“Dawn”) carrying
cargo of 200 from the West African port of Ouida in present-day Benin. Slave insurrections
follow in 1719, 1720, 1721, and 1722.
1721 LeBlond de la Tour, engineer under supervision of Adrien de Pauger, draws up plans for city
of New Orleans, comprising what is now called the Vieux Carré.
Charles Morand employee of the Company of the Indies, establishes the city’s first major
commercial concern, a brickyard on Bayou Road (now Governor Nicholls Street), near the
center of what will become the historic African American community of Faubourg Tremé.
1722 Morand buys the property from Co. of the Indies, and builds a brick-making factory bound- ed by Rampart, Claiborne, Bayou Road/ Gov. Nicholls.
1724 Code Noir (Black Code) instituted, outlining governance of slavery. Le Code Noir requires, in
particular, that torture and execution be carried out not by slavemasters but by a colonial
government appointee; that the enslaved be instructed in the Catholic faith; and that no
labor be required or condoned on Sundays, establishing the so-called “free Sundays” of New
Orleans French, Spanish and American slavery systems.
1725 Free Congo-man Louis/Luis Congo is hired as the colony official torturer and executioner.
Congo’s published schedule of fees includes, for instance, a charge of 10 livres for a whipping
or branding, 30 for hanging, 40 for breaking on the wheel.
1756 Morand (Spanish alias, Pablo Moro) extends land holdings to include total area bound by
present-day Gov. Nicholls Street, St. Bernard Avenue, Galvez and Rampart Streets.
1762 Spanish Colonial Era begins. With Treaty of Fountainbleau, France cedes Louisiana Territory
& Île d’Orléans (Isle of New Orleans) to Spain. 80% + of land situated between Dumaine
Street and St. Bernard Avenue and from Rampart to Broad is owned and occupied by free
1771 San Luis Lanuitte, nègre libre, establishes residence on Bayou Road at the Bridge of the
1777 9–10 February. Local insurrection described by Henríques Desprez in a letter to Spanish
Crown dated 24 February, offering advice on averting future uprisings and slaughter by the enslaved.
Juan and Margarita Bautista, negros libres, purchase 2 arpents of land from Lanuitte, which
they later pass on to son and daughter, Francisco and Francisca.
1780 Rebels establish armed maroon colony in swamp east of New Orleans, from which they or-
ganize raids on the city under direction of Juan San Malo, and also develop independent trade
with local businesses.